The following steps are for general construction guidelines for Category 5 Ethernet cable (commonly referred to as Cat 5). For our example, we are going to make a Category 5e patch cord, but we will work the same general method to make any of the categories of network cables.
Step 1. Unroll the required length of network cable and add some extra cable, just in case
If you are putting on a cable cover, do so before removing the cable jacket and ensure that the cover is facing the correct direction.
Step 2. Carefully remove the outer jacket of the cable
Be careful when peeling the sleeve to avoid biting or cutting the internal wiring. A good way to do this is to make a lengthwise cut with scissors or a knife along the side of the wire, away from you, one inch toward the open end. This reduces the risk of nicking the insulation of the cables. Locate the rope within the cables or, if you cannot find it, use the same cables to decompress the cable sheath by holding the sheath in one hand and pulling to the side with the rope or cable. Cut the unzipped sheath and twisted pairs about 1 1/4 "(30mm). You will notice 8 wires twisted into 4 pairs. Each pair will have one wire of a certain color and another wire that is white with a colored stripe that matches your partner's (this cable is called a tracer).
Step 3. Inspect the newly revealed wires for cuts or scrapes that expose the copper wire inside
If you have broken the protective sheath of any cable, you will have to cut the entire segment of cables and start from step one. Exposed copper wire will lead to crosstalk, poor performance, or no connectivity. It is important that the jacket of all network cables is kept intact.
Step 4. Unscrew the pairs so they are between your fingers
The piece of white yarn can even be cut with the sheath and discarded (see Warnings). For easier handling, cut the cables so that they are 3/4 "(19mm) long from the bottom of the boot and uniform in length.
Step 5. Lay out the cables based on the wiring specifications that you are following
There are two methods established by the TIA, 568A and 568B. Which one you use will depend on what you are connecting to. A straight-through cable is used to connect two different layered devices (for example, a hub and a PC). Two similar devices normally require a crossover cable. The difference between the two is that a straight-through cable has both ends wired identically to 568B, while a crossover cable has one end connected to 568A and the other end connected to 568B. For our demonstration in the following steps, we will use 568B, but the instructions can easily be adapted to 568A.
- 568B - Put the cables in the following order, from left to right:
- Orange white
- White green
- White blue
- White coffee
- 568A - from left to right:
- White green
- White / orange
- White blue
- White coffee
Step 6. You can also use the mnemonic 1-2-3-6 / 3-6-1-2 to remember which wires are connected
Step 7. Press all the wires and parallels between the thumb and forefinger to lay them flat
Check that the colors are in the correct order. Cut the tops of the wires, including each other so that they are 1/2 "(12.5mm) long from the bottom of the boot, this should go into the 8P8C connector for about 1 / 8 ", which means you only have 1/2" of space for individual cables. Leaving more than 1/2 "untwisted can compromise connectivity and quality. Make sure the cut leaves the cables smooth and clean; Failure to do so may result in the wire not making contact inside the connector and could lead to misguided cores within the connection.
Step 8. Keep the cables flat and neat as you push them into the RJ-45 connector with the flat surface of the plug on top
The white / orange wire should be on the left if you are looking down at the connection. You can tell if all the cables made entered the socket and if they held their positions by looking straight at the connection. You should be able to see a wire located in each hole, as seen in the lower right. It may take a bit of effort to firmly push the pairs into the connection. The wiring sleeve should also fit into the back of the connection about 1/4 "(6mm) to help secure the cable once the connection kinks. You may need to stretch the sleeve to the proper length. Verify that the sequence is still correct before pressing.
Step 9. Place the cable connector in the pliers
Give the handle a firm grip. You should hear a noise as you continue. Once the curling is complete, the handle will reset to the open position. To ensure that all the pins are correct, some prefer to double crimp when repeating this step.
Step 10. Repeat all of the above steps for the other end of the cable
How you connect the other end (568A and 568B) will depend on whether you are making a straight, console, or crossover cable (see Tips).
Step 11. Test the cable to make sure it works in the field
Incomplete or poorly wired network cables can cause headaches down the road. Additionally, with Power over Ethernet (PoE) coming on the market, crossover cable pairs can lead to physical damage to computers or phone system equipment, making it even more important that pairs are in the right place. correct order. A simple cable analyzer can quickly verify that information. If you don't have a network cable tester, just test pin-by-pin connectivity.
- A key point to remember in the manufacture of Ethernet patch cables is that the "turns" in the individual pairs should remain intertwined as long as possible until they reach the termination of the RJ-45 plug. The twisting of the pairs in the network cable is what helps ensure good connectivity and keeps interference to a minimum. Don't untangle the cables more than you need to.
- Always keep a network cable rest box on one of the four 'terminal' surfaces, never on one of its two sides. This prevents the folds from laying on top of each other inside the box by making joints and knots.
- CAT5 and CAT5e are very similar cables, however CAT5e offers better quality and handles higher bandwidths, especially for long cables. If you are going to run long cabling, CAT5e is recommended, however CAT5 is still an option for small patch cables.
- A good idea for long wiring, especially those that you have to hang around or carefully avoid, is to curl and test the cable before connecting. This is especially recommended for those who are crimping cables for the first time, as it ensures that they are crimped in the correct pin order, rather than having to troubleshoot later.
- Fire codes require a special type of covering over cables if the wiring will be installed in ceilings or other areas that are exposed to the building's ventilation system. This is generally referred to as grade plenum cable, or simply "plenum cable," and it does not release toxic gases when burned. Plenum cabling is more expensive, perhaps twice the cost of regular cable, so it is only used when needed. The riser cable is similar to the plenum, but is for use in walls or cabinets to connect to the floor. The riser cable cannot replace the plenum cable, so take into account the area where you are putting the cable. When in doubt, use the plenum as it has the strictest ratings and is more secure.
- Unless you have a lot of wiring to do, it can be less frustrating, and because of the cost of tools, it's less expensive to buy pre-made cables.
- A cat5 cable cannot exceed 100 meters, or 328 feet. It probably shouldn't go beyond 300 feet.
- RJ-45 is the common term for most people who use the connectors present in CAT5 cabling. The correct name of the connector is simply 8P8C, since RJ-45 is the name of a connector with a very similar aspect that has now disappeared to the one used in telecommunications. Most people will understand that RJ-45 is like 8P8C, but be careful when buying from catalog or online where you cannot visibly determine what you are buying.
- The ripper cords, if present, are generally quite strong, so don't try to break them. Cut them.
- Be aware of any protection the cable may have. The most common type of UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) cable, but a number of shielding / sheathing options exist for increased EMI protection. Be aware of what you are buying and what you need. In most environments, UTP is going to be fine.
- Unless you need to do a lot of work, it can be less frustrating and, for the cost of tools, less expensive to buy ready-made cables.