4 ways to turn a liquid into a solid

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4 ways to turn a liquid into a solid
4 ways to turn a liquid into a solid
Anonim

Matter exists in three basic states: solid, liquid, and gas. Through freezing, crystallization, polymerization, and evaporation, you can change the state of a solution or compound from a liquid to a solid. These experiments are easy to do at home, and some may even be edible. Just remember to enlist the help of an adult to heat the liquids and move the hot containers.

Steps

Method 1 of 4: Transform Water to Ice by Freezing

Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 1
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 1

Step 1. Pour water into a plastic container

Fill an ice tray, food storage tube, popsicle tray, or plastic bottle with water. You can use hot, cold or room temperature water from the tap.

  • Hot water generally freezes faster than cold water. Freeze separate containers of hot and cold water to compare results.
  • Feel free to try other drinks, like fruit juice or lemonade. If you use an ice or popsicle tray, you can enjoy popsicles later!
  • Don't use a glass container. The water will expand as it freezes and could break the glass. Breakage could also occur if you put a glass container filled with hot water in the freezer, so don't try it.
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 2
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 2

Step 2. Place the container of water in the freezer

Carefully place the container of water in the freezer compartment of a refrigerator at home or at school. Remember to always ask permission before. Slide the container into the back of the freezer so no one accidentally pushes it before the water freezes.

Make sure your freezer is set below 0 ° C (32 ° F), which is the freezing point of water

Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 3
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 3

Step 3. Leave the water in the freezer for at least three hours

Try not to open the freezer door during this time to keep it cold. As you wait, the water will begin to freeze from the outside in. Water in a small container will freeze faster than in a large container, so you will have to wait several hours and even overnight if you want to freeze a large amount of water.

  • An ice cube tray will freeze in about three hours.
  • A plastic bottle of water could freeze after four to five hours.
  • Check after 8-10 hours if you use a large plastic container of water.
  • Sugary liquids (like fruit juices) take longer to freeze than water.
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 4
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 4

Step 4. Remove the container from the freezer and observe the ice

You will notice that the water has changed from a liquid to a solid. This is a simple example to change the state from liquid to solid, or freeze it.

If you leave the ice at room temperature, it will melt and return to its liquid form after a while. An ice cube melts in a matter of minutes

Method 2 of 4: Crystallize a Sugar Solution

Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 5
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 5

Step 1. Mix 240 ml of water and 675 grams of sugar in a saucepan

Use warm or room temperature water and granulated sugar. Pour the ingredients into the pot and stir with a spoon.

Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 6
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 6

Step 2. Coat a bamboo skewer with dry granulated sugar

Dip the end of a skewer in a cup of water to moisten it a bit. Then roll it in a pile of granulated sugar until it is covered in sugar granules. Set it aside and allow it to dry.

This promotes the formation of more sugar crystals from the liquid solution

Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 7
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 7

Step 3. Bring the sugar and water mixture to a boil on a stove burner

Ask an adult to help you with this step. Place the pot on a burner and set the heat to high. As it heats up, stir the solution constantly. Once it boils, keep stirring until the sugar dissolves.

  • You have successfully created a solution, which is a combination of more than one compound.
  • If you want to turn the crystallized sugar into an edible hard candy, add a few drops of liquid food coloring or liquid food flavoring while the solution is boiling.
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 8
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 8

Step 4. Pour the boiling solution into a heat-resistant glass container

Ask an adult for help with this step. Turn off the burner and remove the pot from the heat. Carefully pour the boiling liquid into a heat-resistant glass container.

  • Wear oven mitts to protect yourself, and be careful not to spill the liquid.
  • It is essential that you use a heat resistant container in this step. Any other glass could break.
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 9
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 9

Step 5. Place the sugary end of the skewer in the solution after 10 minutes

Allow the solution to cool for approximately 10 minutes. Then slowly bring the sugary end of the skewer to the middle of the bowl. Hold it in place with a clamp or a piece of tape and another skewer.

  • If the top opening of the glass container is narrow, attach the skewer with an alligator clip. The sides of the clamp should rest on the edge of the container and hold the skewer in place.
  • Another way to hold the skewer in place is to use two skewers to form a "+". Tape the skewers together and support them on the edge of the container. Lastly, tape the sugary skewer to the others so that it remains straight.
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 10
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 10

Step 6. Allow the crystals to form for at least a week

Leave the solution in a room at room temperature where no one will touch it. Sugar crystals will start to form around the skewer after a few days. Wait at least a full week to see more crystals form.

If you notice that the crystals on the skewer come very close to other crystals growing on the sides of the glass container, carefully move them away so as not to interrupt the formation of the crystals on the skewer

Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 11
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 11

Step 7. Remove the skewer and observe the sugar in solid crystalline state

Use a butter knife to pound the hard edges of the solution, if necessary. Then gently lift the skewer and its sugar crystal coating.

If you want to eat your hard candy, place the skewer in another container to dry. Once the liquid dries, you can enjoy your crystallized sugar snack

Method 3 of 4: Polymerize Milk in Plastic

Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 12
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 12

Step 1. Heat 240 ml of whole milk in a microwave until it is smoking

Pour 240 ml of whole milk into a microwave-safe container. Heat it on high power for about a minute. If necessary, heat for 30 more seconds. The milk should be smoking, but it shouldn't bubble yet.

  • You can also do it with a pot on a stove, but with adult supervision.
  • Whole milk is much better than skim or 2% milk, as it has a higher fat content.
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 13
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 13

Step 2. Stir 60 ml of vinegar into the hot milk

Gently remove the microwave-safe container from the microwave with an oven mitt. Measure out 60 ml of distilled white vinegar and pour it into the milk. Stir the liquids slowly with a spoon.

  • As you stir, you will notice that hard lumps or curds form in the milk.
  • You will begin to perceive a strange aroma. Don't be discouraged; Keep stirring!
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 14
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 14

Step 3. Scoop up the lumps and place them on a stack of paper towels

Place three or four paper towels on a plate to absorb the moisture. After the milk and vinegar begin to cool slightly, use a spoon to remove as many solid lumps as you can from the mixture. Place them on a stack of paper towels.

If you have trouble scooping up the lumps, tip the container over a strainer over the sink to drain most of the liquid

Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 15
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 15

Step 4. Squeeze the moisture out of the lumps with a paper towel

Once all the lumps are placed on the paper towel, fold the dry sides over the lumps and press down. Use the paper towel to absorb as much moisture as possible from the lumps.

Use a few more pieces of paper towel to pat the clumps dry if the original gets too wet

Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 16
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 16

Step 5. Roll the dried lumps (now plastic casein) into a ball in your hand

Take the dried lumps and form a ball in your hand. Squash them and knead them until they are well joined, like a ball of dough.

  • The lumpy ball you are holding is now plastic casein.
  • When milk curdles, the liquid separated from the fat solidifies, as does the protein from casein. Fat and casein join together in a polymer chain, forming a plastic.
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 17
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 17

Step 6. Stain, mold, or sculpt the plastic casein, if desired

Plastic casein used to be very popular for beads, buttons, jewelry, and other decorative uses. If desired, add a drop of liquid food coloring to the plastic ball to tint it. Then feel free to mold it by hand and to shape it into your desired shape.

  • Wear disposable gloves to prevent the dye from staining your hands.
  • You can also roll and flatten the ball, and shape it with a cookie cutter.
  • Regardless of what you do, make sure to finish everything within an hour of removing the lumps from the milk. Soon after, they will harden.
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 18
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 18

Step 7. Allow the plastic casein to harden for 48 hours

After shaping or coloring the plastic, place it on another piece of paper towel. Wait two days for it to harden. Once this time is up, you will have a solid piece of homemade plastic casein.

Once the plastic has fully hardened, you can draw it with a marker

Method 4 of 4: Evaporate a Salt Water Solution

Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 19
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 19

Step 1. Dissolve 55 grams of table salt in warm water

Fill a container with 120 ml of warm tap water. Add 55 grams of table salt and stir until it dissolves in the water.

  • Keep stirring until you no longer see any salt particles in the water.
  • Now, this mixture will be a solution.
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 20
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 20

Step 2. Pour the salt water solution into a shallow cookie sheet

Use a sturdy, shallow, flat-bottomed container to transfer the water to. The water should cover the bottom of the container with a very thin layer.

  • You can use a metal cookie sheet, cake pan, or other baking sheet.
  • Do not cover the container.
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 21
Make a Liquid Into a Solid Step 21

Step 3. Allow the water to evaporate naturally or in the oven

Place the tray outside in the sun or on top of a hot radiator. Depending on the amount of heat the tray is exposed to, this process can take 8-10 hours up to a few days. To speed up the evaporation process, place the tray in the oven at 325 ° F (163 ° C) and heat the solution for about an hour.

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