# How to argue logically: 14 Steps (with pictures)

Logical arguments can help other people share your point of view. There are several situations in your academic, professional and personal life that will merit making a logical argument. Therefore, if you use a well-founded premise, a good formula, and statements free of logical fallacies (or logical errors), you can win the arguments and win supporters.

## Steps

### Part 1 of 3: Investigate the premise

#### Step 1. Choose your premise

A premise, or thesis statement, is the theory that you are trying to prove. Pick something that is debatable and be as specific as possible. For example, instead of saying an uncontroversial statement like "Pollution is bad for the environment," opt for one like "To reduce pollution, the government must impose tougher taxes on car owners."

### Try not to be confrontational or confrontational when expressing your premise. Avoid words such as "stupid" or "bad", which can quickly distance the people you are trying to convince

#### Step 2. Look for reliable sources that support your premise

Visit your local library and find a librarian to help you find books and magazines related to your research. You can also do a considerable part of your search over the Internet, but be careful with the sites you visit, as some are more reliable than others.

• The best places to start are government or university websites, peer-reviewed magazines, popular newspaper publications, or documentaries.
• Generally, social media posts, personal websites, and collaborative websites where anyone can make changes are not reliable sources that you can cite. However, they are ideal places to get a basic understanding of a topic.
• Avoid sources that are trying to sell something, as their statements may not be completely honest.

#### Step 3. Find reliable sources to support the counterargument

Investigate an opposing point of view so that you can anticipate the arguments someone will make against your premise. This will also help you prepare your response to the counterargument.

### Part 2 of 3: Formulate the Argument

#### Step 1. Present your argument

Start with an introduction that explains what you are going to argue. The introduction will include your premise or thesis, and provide a preview of how you plan to demonstrate it. Basically, this "preview" will be a brief summary of your research findings.

### An example would be the following: "By presenting the economic, cultural and environmental changes in our city as a result of the imposition of the car tax, I will demonstrate that this is a realistic option to reduce pollution in our country."

#### Step 2. List the evidence from the strongest to the weakest

Start with your most convincing piece of evidence so that you can convince others of your point of view as soon as possible. Then work your way up to the weakest aspect of your argument.

### Usually the best proof you can present is statistics. For example, "The number of cars purchased in the city decreased by 8% after including an additional tax."

#### Step 3. Use deductive or inductive reasoning

This is the path you must follow to reach your conclusion. Through deductive reasoning, you will start with generalizations and come to a specific conclusion. On the other hand, through inductive reasoning, you will start with the specifics and then come to a more general conclusion.

• This is an example of deductive reasoning: “All cars run on gasoline. Toyota is a type of car. Therefore, Toyota runs on gasoline. " With this reasoning, if the first two premises are true, the third must also be.
• Here's an example of inductive reasoning: “My car has poor gas mileage. Some cars with poor gas mileage are prohibited in this city. Therefore, my car will be prohibited in this city”. With this reasoning, if the first two premises are true, the third could also be true, or perhaps not. Inductive reasoning is often used in cases where some prediction is needed.

#### Step 4. Determine the validity and robustness

A valid argument is one in which, if all the premises are true, the conclusion must also be true. The solidity consists in whether these premises are really valid. Therefore, make sure your argument is both valid and strong.

### For example: “All cars are purple. Purple cars run on gasoline. Therefore, all cars run on gasoline. " If all the premises were true, the conclusion would also be true, so it is valid. However, it is obvious that not all cars are purple, so the argument is not strong

#### Step 5. Repeat the argument in a conclusion

Conclude the argument by summarizing again your main proof and how it proved your premise. Avoid repeating the thesis verbatim, but rather reformulate it in some other way.

• For example, “The success of the car tax established in the city to reduce vehicle purchases and therefore decrease gas emissions is the reason why our country needs to add a similar tax to our efforts. environmental”.
• You can use the conclusion as an opportunity to re-emphasize why your argument matters, but without introducing new evidence or information.

### Part 3 of 3: Avoid Logical Fallacies

#### Step 1. Avoid making hasty generalizations

This is a statement made without sufficient evidence. Therefore, do not rush to pass judgment without even knowing all the facts. Making assumptions about large groups of people will undermine your argument and could offend others.

### For example: "All people who have cars do not care about the environment."

#### Step 2. Avoid circular arguments

These occur when you restate an argument while trying to prove a statement. Therefore, pay attention to statements where you basically say the same thing twice.

### For example: "Cars contribute to pollution by polluting the environment."

#### Step 3. Avoid begging the question

This occurs when the statement is reformulated as support for that statement. It is similar to a circular argument, although you can use more damaging language. Use specific tests that allow you to prove your point instead of resorting to biased descriptions.

### For example: "Toxic gasoline fumes pollute the Earth." Show how these vapors produce pollution rather than calling them toxic

#### Step 4. Avoid ad hominem arguments

Don't attack a person's character instead of their arguments or positions on certain issues. His character is not related to the issue at hand, so attacking him will give the impression that you are against the person himself.

### For example: "Juan's plan will solve nothing because he is selfish." This statement does not address anything about Juan's plan or how it affects the problem, but rather attacks him personally

#### Step 5. Avoid “red herring” arguments

These occur when you try to distract attention from something in order to avoid key points that you need to address.

### For example: "Think how fast your commute will be if there are fewer cars on the streets!" This statement does not relate at all to the environmental impact of cars or the economic impact of taxes

#### Step 6. Avoid false dilemma arguments

This greatly simplifies an argument by insisting that there are only two options. When tackling a problem, there are almost always more than two options, so don't assume yours is the only solution. Make a strong case for your argument instead of scaring others into thinking it's the only way.