If you want to cite a research article or document according to the APA style, you will need to use a specific citation format, which varies depending on the source. Assess whether your source is an article or report published in an academic journal or book, or if it is an unpublished research article, such as a printed thesis or dissertation. Either way, in-text citations should include information about the author (if available) and the date the source was published or written.
Part 1 of 3: Write an In-Text Quote
Step 1. Put the author's name and publication date before the citation
To simplify an in-text citation, it is a good idea to put the author's last name as part of the introductory sentence, as well as the publication date in parentheses. In this way, it will not be necessary to include this data in the same appointment.
For example, you could write something like this: “Gardener (2008) points out the following: 'There are many factors to consider about lobsters' (p. 199).”
Step 2. If you don't include the author's last name in the text, put it next to the citation
In the event that you do not want to mention the author's name within the text, you can place it in parentheses at the end of the same quote or the information you want to cite. If you have more than one author, put the corresponding surnames separated by commas and the conjunction "and" between the last two.
- For example, you could write something like this: "'There are many factors to consider about lobsters' (Gardener, 2008, p. 199)." or “The work points out the following:‘The tropes about the fallen angel are common in religious and non-religious texts’(Meek and Hill, 2015, pp. 13-14).”.
- For articles that include 3 to 5 authors, write the names of all of them the first time you cite the source. For example: (Hamlet, Wooster, Smith, Charles, 1928). In subsequent citations, write only the first author's name followed by et al.: (Hamlet et al, 1928).
- If the work has 6 or more authors, include the last name of the first named author followed by the abbreviation "et al." to imply the number of authors mentioned.
- For example, you could write the following: "'Here is the quote' (Minaj et al., 1997, p. 45)."
Step 3. Enter the name of the organization if you can't find the name of the author
If the research paper the citation comes from has no author, look up the name of the organization that published it.
For example, you could write something like: "'The risk of cervical cancer is increasing' (American Cancer Society, 2012, p. 2)."
Step 4. Put a shortened form of the title in quotation marks if you can't find an author or organization
In the event that you cannot find the information of the author or the organization that published the work, you can use the first words of the title.
For example, you could write something like: "'Shakespeare could have been a woman' (" Radical English Literature ", 2004, p. 45)." or "The work indicates the following:" The production and use of the images of the Virgin Mary has exploded "(" History of art in Italy ", 2011, p. 32)."
Step 5. Enter the year of publication of the work
Separate the author or title of the work and the date with a comma.
For example, you could write something like this: "'There are several factors to consider about lobsters' (Gardner, 2008, p. 199)." or “The work points out the following:‘The tropes about the fallen angel are common in religious and non-religious texts’(“Iconography in Italian frescoes”, 2015, pp. 13-14).”
Step 6. Use the abbreviation “s.f
” if you can't find the date. For example, you could write something like this: "'Shakespeare could have been a woman' (" Radical English Literature ", n.d., p. 12)." or "Minaj (s.f., p. 45) points out the following: 'The study of psychology is not well funded.'"
Step 7. Enter the page number of the job where the citation is located
Write the abbreviation "p." before placing the number. If you want to mark more than one, separate the pages in the range with a hyphen.
For example, you could write something like this: "'There are many factors to consider about lobsters' (Gardener, 2008, p. 199)." or “The work points out the following:‘The tropes about the fallen angel are common in religious and non-religious texts’(“Iconography in Italian frescoes”, 2015, pp. 145-146).”
Step 8. Use the abbreviation “parr
” to indicate the paragraph number if the pages are not numbered. Count the number of paragraphs in the work and number them. Then, indicate the number where the appointment appears preceded by the abbreviation “parr.”.
For example, you could write the following: "'Food deprivation has long-lasting effects' (Mett, 2005, para. 18)."
Part 2 of 3: Create the citation with reference list for a published source
Step 1. Determine if the source is published
There are many ways to determine if a source is considered "published." One of the easiest is to look at the source's title page, header, or footer for post information. For example, if you want to cite a book chapter, check the title page for information about the publisher, as well as the place and date of publication.
- Material on the websites is also considered “published,” even if it is not peer-reviewed or related to a formal publishing company.
- Although academic dissertations or theses that are in print are considered unpublished, these types of documents are considered published if they are included in an online database (such as ProQuest) or incorporated into an institutional repository.
Step 2. Write down the author's last name and the first letter of his or her name in italics
Separate the last name from the initial with a comma. If there is more than one author, write down their names as indicated and separate each one with commas, and the last one from the penultimate with a "and".
- For example, you could write the following: "Gardner, L." or "Meek, P., Kendrick, L. and Hill, R."
- If you can't find the author's name, you can put in the name of the organization that published the work. For example, you could write: "American Cancer Society" or "The Reading Room."
- Formally published documents that do not include an author or that have a corporate author are generally official documents or reports.
Step 3. Include the year of publication of the work in parentheses followed by a period
You should place a period after the name of the author or organization that published the document, and another after the year of publication.
For example, you could write the following: "Gardner, L. (2008)." or “American Society Against Cancer. (2015).”
Step 4. Place the title of the research paper in italics
You must include the full title in the list of references. If you are citing an article that was published in a newspaper or as part of an edited book, do not enclose the title in quotation marks or italics. Capitalize only the first letter of the first word in the title, as well as any proper names.
For example, you could write the following: “Gardner, L. (2008). Crustaceans: Research and information. " or “American Society Against Cancer. (2015). Cervical cancer index in women between 20 and 45 years of age. "
Step 5. Write down the title of the publication in which the article appears
If you want to cite an article that was published in an academic journal, follow the title of the article with the title and volume number of the journal, followed by the page numbers. If the article was published in a book, include the publisher's name, book title, relevant pages, as well as the publisher's name and location.
- For example, for a magazine article, you can write the following: “Gardner, L. M. (2008). Crustaceans: Research and information. Modern Journal of Malacostracana Research, 25, 150-305. "
- For a book chapter, you can write the following: “Wooster, B. W. (1937). A comparative study of modern Dutch cow creams. In T. E. Travers (Ed.), A Detailed History of Teaware (pp. 127-155). London: Wimble Press. "
Step 6. Include the website where you retrieved the article if it is web-based
If you accessed a research article online, write it down in the citation by including the words "Retrieved from." Enter the name of the organization or publication, followed by the URL of the article.
- For example, you can write: “Kotb, M. A., Kamal, A. M., Aldossary, N. M., & Bedewi, M. A. (2019). The effect of vitamin D replacement on depression in patients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, 29, 111-117. Retrieved from PubMed,
- If you want to cite a document or article published online, but not from an academic journal or database, provide information about the author (if known), the date of publication (if available) and the website where you found the article. For example: “Hill, M. (n.d.). Egypt in the Ptolemaic period. Retrieved from https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ptol/hd_ptol.htm "
Part 3 of 3: Citing Unpublished Sources in Your Reference List
Step 1. Determine if your source is not published
You will want to cite unpublished research articles in a slightly different way than published ones. First of all, make sure your source is definitely considered unpublished. You should also ensure that you are allowed to use unpublished or non-peer-reviewed sources in your writing work. Types of unpublished articles include:
- dissertations or printed theses
- articles or book chapters that are in press or that have recently been prepared or submitted for publication
- documents that have been rejected for publication or were never intended for publication (such as academic research articles or unpublished conference articles)
Step 2. Indicates the status of the articles that are in the process of being published
If you want to cite a source that is about to be published, you must show in your citation what publication process it is in. Include the name of the author, the title of the article, and a note on the status of the article.
- If the article is currently being prepared for publication, include the author's name, the year the current draft was completed, and the title in italics, followed by the words "Manuscript in preparation." For example: Wooster, B. W. (1932). What does the well-dressed man wear? Manuscript in preparation.
- If the article has been submitted for publication, the citation format should be the same as if it were in preparation, but followed by the phrase “Manuscript submitted for publication”. For example: Wooster, B. W. (1932). What does the well-dressed man wear? Manuscript submitted for publication.
- If the article has been accepted for publication, but has not yet been published, replace the date with "in press." Do not italicize the title of the article, but do italicize the title of the newspaper or book in which it will be published. For example: Wooster, B. W. (in press). What does the well-dressed man wear? Milady’s Boudoir.
Step 3. Consider the status of articles that were never intended for publication
In some cases, you may need to cite an article that was never submitted or accepted for publication. In these situations, include the author's name, the date of writing or submission, the title (in italics), and the context of the article (that is, where and for what purpose it was written). For instance:
- If the article was written for a conference but never published, the citation should look like this: Riker, W. T. (March, 2019). Traditional methods for preparing spiny puffer fish. Paper presented at the 325th Annual Intergalactic Culinary Conference, San Francisco, CA.
- For an unpublished article written by a student for a class, include details about the institution where it was written. For example: Crusher, B. H. (2019). A typology of Cadassian skin diseases. Unpublished manuscript, Department of External Medicine, Starfleet Academy, San Francisco, CA.
Step 4. Make clear the status of unpublished dissertations and theses
If you cite a thesis or academic dissertation that is only available as a printed source, you should indicate that it is not published. Include the author's name, the completion date, as well as the title in italics. After the title, write (“unpublished doctoral dissertation”). Complete the citation with information about the university where the thesis or dissertation was prepared.